MEDICATION ABORTION BIBLIOGRAPHY

In Family Medicine

Training

Complications

Outcomes & Post Abortion Issues

Methotrexate Regimens

Misoprostol Regimens

Mifepristone and Combined Regimens

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Medication Abortion and Family Medicine

1. Gold M. Abortion training in family medicine. Fam Med. Apr 1996;28(4):287-288.
Link to PubMed

2. Gold M, Luks D, Anderson MR. Medical options for early pregnancy termination. Am Fam Physician. Aug 1997;56(2):533-538.
Link to PubMed

3. Leeman L, Espey E. "You can't do that 'round here": a case study of the introduction of medical abortion care at a University Medical Center. Contraception. Feb 2005;71(2):84-88.
Link to PubMed

4. Lesnewski R, Prine L, Gold M. New research abortion training as an integral part of residency training. Fam Med. Jun 2003;35(6):386-387.
Link to PubMed

5. Nothnagle M, Taylor JS. Medical methods for first-trimester abortion. Am Fam Physician. Jul 1 2004;70(1):81-83.
Link to PubMed

6. Prine L, Lesnewski R, Berley N, Gold M. Medical abortion in family practice: a case series. J Am Board Fam Pract. Jul-Aug 2003;16(4):290-295.
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7. Prine L, Lesnewski R, Bregman R. Integrating medical abortion into a residency practice. Fam Med. Jul-Aug 2003;35(7):469-471.
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8. Prine LW, Lesnewski R. Medication abortion and family physicians' scope of practice. J Am Board Fam Pract. Jul-Aug 2005;18(4):304-306.
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9. Raymond E, Kaczorowski J, Smith P, Sellors J, Walsh A. Medical abortion and family physicians. Survey of residents and practitioners in two Ontario settings. Can Fam Physician. Mar 2002;48:538-544.
Link to PubMed

10. Schaff EA, Eisinger SH, Franks P, Kim SS. Combined methotrexate and misoprostol for early induced abortion. Arch Fam Med. Sep 1995;4(9):774-779.
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11. Schaff EA, Eisinger SH, Franks P, Kim SS. Methotrexate and misoprostol for early abortion. Fam Med. Mar 1996;28(3):198-203.
Link to PubMed

12. Schaff EA, Stadalius LS, Eisinger SH, Franks P. Vaginal misoprostol administered at home after mifepristone (RU486) for abortion. J Fam Pract. Apr 1997;44(4):353-360.
Link to PubMed

13. Winikoff B, Ellertson C, Elul B, Sivin I. Acceptability and feasibility of early pregnancy termination by mifepristone-misoprostol. Results of a large multicenter trial in the United States. Mifepristone Clinical Trials Group. Arch Fam Med. Jul-Aug 1998;7(4):360-366.
Link to PubMed

14. Herbitter, C, Greenberg, M, Fletcher, J, Query, C, Dalby, J, Gold, M. Family planning training in U.S. family medicine residencies. Fam Med. Sep 2011;43(8):574-81
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15. Fornari, A, Fletcher, J, Herbitter C, Boden, L, Gold, M. Students as patients and teachers: evaluation of an experiential emergency contraception project. Fam Med. Mar 2011;43(3):172-8
Link to PubMed

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Medication Abortion Training

1. Acharya G, Haugen M, Brathen A, Nilsen I, Maltau JM. Role of routine ultrasonography in monitoring the outcome of medical abortion in a clinical setting. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. Apr 2004;83(4):390-394.
Link to PubMed

2. Ellertson C, Elul B, Ambardekar S, Wood L, Carroll J, Coyaji K. Accuracy of assessment of pregnancy duration by women seeking early abortions. Lancet. Mar 11 2000;355(9207):877-881.
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3. Gold M. Abortion training in family medicine. Fam Med. Apr 1996;28(4):287-288.
Link to PubMed

4. Grimes DA, Creinin MD. Induced abortion: an overview for internists. Ann Intern Med. Apr 20 2004;140(8):620-626.
Link to PubMed

5. Hwang AC, Koyama A, Taylor D, Henderson JT, Miller S. Advanced practice clinicians' interest in providing medical abortion: results of a California survey. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. Jun 2005;37(2):92-97.
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6. Joffe C. Medical abortion and the potential for new abortion providers: a cautionary tale. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):151-154.
Link to PubMed

7. Leeman L, Espey E. "You can't do that 'round here": a case study of the introduction of medical abortion care at a University Medical Center. Contraception. Feb 2005;71(2):84-88.
Link to PubMed

8. Lesnewski R, Prine L, Gold M. New research abortion training as an integral part of residency training. Fam Med. Jun 2003;35(6):386-387.
Link to PubMed

9. Narrigan D. Early abortion. Update and implications for midwifery practice. J Nurse Midwifery. Nov-Dec 1998;43(6):492-501.
Link to PubMed

10. Paul M, Schaff E, Nichols M. The roles of clinical assessment, human chorionic gonadotropin assays, and ultrasonography in medical abortion practice. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Aug 2000;183(2 Suppl):S34-43.
Link to PubMed

11. Raymond E, Kaczorowski J, Smith P, Sellors J, Walsh A. Medical abortion and family physicians. Survey of residents and practitioners in two Ontario settings. Can Fam Physician. Mar 2002;48:538-544.
Link to PubMed

12. Schwarz EB, Luetkemeyer A, Foster DG, Weitz TA, Lindes D, Stewart FH. Willing and able? Provision of medication for abortion by future internists. Womens Health Issues. Jan-Feb 2005;15(1):39-44.
Link to PubMed

13. Shotorbani S, Zimmerman FJ, Bell JF, Ward D, Assefi N. Attitudes and intentions of future health care providers toward abortion provision. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. Mar-Apr 2004;36(2):58-63.
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14. Stewart FH, Darney PD. Abortion: teaching why as well as how. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. Jan-Feb 2003;35(1):37-39.
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15. Suhonen S, Heikinheimo O, Tikka M, Haukkamaa M. The learning curve is rapid in medical termination of pregnancy--first-year results from the Helsinki area. Contraception. Mar 2003;67(3):223-227.
Link to PubMed

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Medication Abortion Complications

1. Clostridium sordellii toxic shock syndrome after medical abortion with mifepristone and intravaginal misoprostol--United States and Canada, 2001-2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Jul 29 2005;54(29):724.
Link to Full Text

2. Severe Clostridium difficile-associated disease in populations previously at low risk--four states, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Dec 2 2005;54(47):1201-1205.
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3. Adam MP, Manning MA, Beck AE, et al. Methotrexate/misoprostol embryopathy: report of four cases resulting from failed medical abortion. Am J Med Genet A. Nov 15 2003;123(1):72-78.
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4. Fischer M, Bhatnagar J, Guarner J, et al. Fatal toxic shock syndrome associated with Clostridium sordellii after medical abortion. N Engl J Med. Dec 1 2005;353(22):2352-2360.
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5. Kruse B, Poppema S, Creinin MD, Paul M. Management of side effects and complications in medical abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Aug 2000;183(2 Suppl):S65-75.
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6. Lichtenberg ES. Gestational trophoblastic tumor after medical abortion. Obstet Gynecol. May 2003;101(5 Pt 2):1137-1139.
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7. Miech RP. Pathophysiology of mifepristone-induced septic shock due to Clostridium sordellii. Ann Pharmacother. Sep 2005;39(9):1483-1488.
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8. Nemec DK, Prendergast TJ, Jr., Trumbower WD. Medical abortion complications. An epidemiologic study at a mid-Missouri clinic. Obstet Gynecol. Apr 1978;51(4):433-436.
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9. Prasad RN, Choolani M, Roy A, Ratnam SS. Blood loss in termination of early pregnancy with mifepristone and gemeprost. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. Aug 1995;35(3):329-331.
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10. Rorbye C, Norgaard M, Nilas L. Medical versus surgical abortion efficacy, complications and leave of absence compared in a partly randomized study. Contraception. Nov 2004;70(5):393-399.
Link to PubMed

11. Rorbye C, Norgaard M, Vestermark V, Nilas L. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures. Contraception. Oct 2003;68(4):247-251.
Link to PubMed

12. Shannon C, Brothers LP, Philip NM, Winikoff B. Infection after medical abortion: a review of the literature. Contraception. Sep 2004;70(3):183-190.
Link to PubMed

13. Shannon C, Brothers LP, Philip NM, Winikoff B. Ectopic pregnancy and medical abortion. Obstet Gynecol. Jul 2004;104(1):161-167.
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14. Sorensen EC, Iversen OE, Bjorge L. Failed medical termination of twin pregnancy with mifepristone: a case report. Contraception. Mar 2005;71(3):231-233.
Link to PubMed

15. Winikoff B, Ellertson C, Clark S. Analysis of failure in medical abortion. Contraception. Dec 1996;54(6):323-327.
Link to PubMed

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Medication Abortion Outcomes and Post Abortion Issues

1. Abdel-Aziz E, Hassan IM, Al-Taher H. Assessment of women's satisfaction with medical termination of pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. Jun 2004;24(4):429-433.
Link to PubMed

2. Adam MP, Manning MA, Beck AE, et al. Methotrexate/misoprostol embryopathy: report of four cases resulting from failed medical abortion. Am J Med Genet A. Nov 15 2003;123(1):72-78.
Link to PubMed

3. Allen RH, Westhoff C, De Nonno L, Fielding SL, Schaff EA. Curettage after mifepristone-induced abortion: frequency, timing, and indications. Obstet Gynecol. Jul 2001;98(1):101-106.
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4. Arvidsson C, Hellborg M, Gemzell-Danielsson K. Preference and acceptability of oral versus vaginal administration of misoprostol in medical abortion with mifepristone. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. Nov 1 2005;123(1):87-91.
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5. Clark S, Ellertson C, Winikoff B. Is medical abortion acceptable to all American women: the impact of sociodemographic characteristics on the acceptability of mifepristone-misoprostol abortion. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):177-182.
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6. Creinin MD. Randomized comparison of efficacy, acceptability and cost of medical versus surgical abortion. Contraception. Sep 2000;62(3):117-124.
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7. Creinin MD, Spitz IM. Use of various ultrasonographic criteria to evaluate the efficacy of mifepristone and misoprostol for medical abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Dec 1999;181(6):1419-1424.
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8. Davis A, Westhoff C, De Nonno L. Bleeding patterns after early abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol or manual vacuum aspiration. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):141-144.
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9. De Nonno LJ, Westhoff C, Fielding S, Schaff E. Timing of pain and bleeding after mifepristone-induced abortion. Contraception. Dec 2000;62(6):305-309.
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10. Fiala C, Safar P, Bygdeman M, Gemzell-Danielsson K. Verifying the effectiveness of medical abortion; ultrasound versus hCG testing. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. Aug 15 2003;109(2):190-195.
Link to PubMed      

11. Grossman D, Ellertson C, Grimes DA, Walker D. Routine follow-up visits after first-trimester induced abortion. Obstet Gynecol. Apr 2004;103(4):738-745.
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12. Hamoda H, Ashok PW, Flett GM, Templeton A. Medical abortion at 9-13 weeks' gestation: a review of 1076 consecutive cases. Contraception. May 2005;71(5):327-332.
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13. Harvey SM, Beckman LJ, Satre SJ. Experiences and satisfaction with providing methotrexate-induced abortions among US providers. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):161-163.
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14. Harvey SM, Beckman LJ, Satre SJ. Choice of and satisfaction with methods of medical and surgical abortion among U.S. clinic patients. Fam Plann Perspect. Sep-Oct 2001;33(5):212-216.
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15. Hedley A, Ellertson C, Trussell J, et al. Accounting for time: insights from a life-table analysis of the efficacy of medical abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Dec 2004;191(6):1928-1933.
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16. Hedley A, Trussell J, Turner AN, et al. Differences in efficacy, differences in providers: results from a hazard analysis of medical abortion. Contraception. Feb 2004;69(2):157-163.
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17. Henshaw R, Naji S, Russell I, Templeton A. Psychological responses following medical abortion (using mifepristone and gemeprost) and surgical vacuum aspiration. A patient-centered, partially randomised prospective study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. Nov 1994;73(10):812-818.
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18. Maaita ME, Prasarman C, Smith J, Neale EJ. Women's satisfaction with medical termination. Br J Fam Plann. Apr 1999;25(1):9-11.
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19. Mamers PM, Lavelle AL, Evans AJ, Bell SM, Rusden JR, Healy DL. Women's satisfaction with medical abortion with RU486. Med J Aust. Sep 15 1997;167(6):316-317.
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20. Newhall EP, Winikoff B. Abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol: regimens, efficacy, acceptability and future directions. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Aug 2000;183(2 Suppl):S44-53.
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21. Rogo K. Improving technologies to reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. Jun 2004;85 Suppl 1:S73-82.
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22. Rorbye C, Norgaard M, Nilas L. Medical versus surgical abortion efficacy, complications and leave of absence compared in a partly randomized study. Contraception. Nov 2004;70(5):393-399.
Link to PubMed

23. Rorbye C, Norgaard M, Vestermark V, Nilas L. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures. Contraception. Oct 2003;68(4):247-251.
Link to PubMed

24. Rossi B, Creinin MD, Meyn LA. Ability of the clinician and patient to predict the outcome of mifepristone and misoprostol medical abortion. Contraception. Oct 2004;70(4):313-317.
Link to PubMed

25. Shannon C, Brothers LP, Philip NM, Winikoff B. Infection after medical abortion: a review of the literature. Contraception. Sep 2004;70(3):183-190.
Link to PubMed

26. Sorensen EC, Iversen OE, Bjorge L. Failed medical termination of twin pregnancy with mifepristone: a case report. Contraception. Mar 2005;71(3):231-233.
Link to PubMed

27. Tang OS, Gao PP, Cheng L, Lee SW, Ho PC. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study to assess the effect of oral contraceptive pills on the outcome of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol. Hum Reprod. Mar 1999;14(3):722-725.
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28. Tang OS, Xu J, Cheng L, Lee SW, Ho PC. The effect of contraceptive pills on the measured blood loss in medical termination of pregnancy by mifepristone and misoprostol: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Hum Reprod. Jan 2002;17(1):99-102.
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29. Trussell J, Ellertson C. Estimating the efficacy of medical abortion. Contraception. Sep 1999;60(3):119-135.
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30. Virgo KS, Carr TR, Hile A, Virgo JM, Sullivan GM, Kaikati JG. Medical versus surgical abortion: a survey of knowledge and attitudes among abortion clinic patients. Womens Health Issues. May-Jun 1999;9(3):143-154.
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31. Westhoff C, Dasmahapatra R, Winikoff B, Clarke S. Predictors of analgesia use during supervised medical abortion. The Mifepristone Clinical Trials Group. Contraception. Mar 2000;61(3):225-229.
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32. Winikoff B, Ellertson C, Clark S. Analysis of failure in medical abortion. Contraception. Dec 1996;54(6):323-327.
Link to PubMed

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Methotrexate Regimens

1. Studies continue in methotrexate use. Contracept Technol Update. Sep 1998;19(9):114, 119.
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2. Beckman LJ, Harvey SM, Satre SJ. The delivery of medical abortion services: the views of experienced providers. Womens Health Issues. Mar-Apr 2002;12(2):103-112.
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3. Borgatta L, Burnhill M, Haskell S, Nichols M, Leonhardt K. Instituting medical abortion services: changes in outcome and acceptability related to provider experience. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):173-176.
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4. Borgatta L, Burnhill MS, Tyson J, Leonhardt KK, Hausknecht RU, Haskell S. Early medical abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol. Obstet Gynecol. Jan 2001;97(1):11-16.
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5. Borgatta L, French A, Vragovic O, Burnhill M. Early medical abortion with methotrexate. Outcome and satisfaction among women aged 15-20 years. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. May 2000;13(2):87-88.
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6. Borgatta L, French A, Vragovic O, Burnhill MS. Early medical abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol: outcomes and satisfaction among women aged 15-21 years. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. Feb 2001;14(1):9-16.
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7. Carbonell JL, Rodriguez J, Aragon S, et al. Vaginal misoprostol 1000 microg for early abortion. Contraception. Mar 2001;63(3):131-136.
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8. Carbonell JL, Velazco A, Varela L, et al. Misoprostol for abortion at 9-12 weeks' gestation in adolescents. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. Mar 2001;6(1):39-45.
Link to PubMed

9. Creinin MD. Methotrexate and misoprostol for abortion at 57-63 days gestation. Contraception. Dec 1994;50(6):511-515.
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10. Creinin MD. Change in serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin after abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Feb 1996;174(2):776-778.
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11. Creinin MD. Medical abortion with methotrexate 75 mg intramuscularly and vaginal misoprostol. Contraception. Dec 1997;56(6):367-371.
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12. Creinin MD. Conception rates after abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. May 1999;65(2):183-188.
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13. Creinin MD. Medical abortion regimens: historical context and overview. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Aug 2000;183(2 Suppl):S3-9.
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14. Creinin MD, Burke AE. Methotrexate and misoprostol for early abortion: a multicenter trial. Acceptability. Contraception. Jul 1996;54(1):19-22.
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15. Creinin MD, Carbonell JL, Schwartz JL, Varela L, Tanda R. A randomized trial of the effect of moistening misoprostol before vaginal administration when used with methotrexate for abortion. Contraception. Jan 1999;59(1):11-16.
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16. Creinin MD, Jerald H. Success rates and estimation of gestational age for medical abortion vary with transvaginal ultrasonographic criteria. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Jan 1999;180(1 Pt 1):35-41.
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17. Creinin MD, Park M. Acceptability of medical abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol. Contraception. Jul 1995;52(1):41-44.
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18. Creinin MD, Potter C, Holovanisin M, et al. Mifepristone and misoprostol and methotrexate/misoprostol in clinical practice for abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Mar 2003;188(3):664-669.
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19. Creinin MD, Pymar HC. Medical abortion alternatives to mifepristone. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):127-132, 150.
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20. Creinin MD, Vittinghoff E. Methotrexate and misoprostol vs misoprostol alone for early abortion. A randomized controlled trial. Jama. Oct 19 1994;272(15):1190-1195.
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21. Creinin MD, Vittinghoff E, Galbraith S, Klaisle C. A randomized trial comparing misoprostol three and seven days after methotrexate for early abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Nov 1995;173(5):1578-1584.
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22. Creinin MD, Vittinghoff E, Keder L, Darney PD, Tiller G. Methotrexate and misoprostol for early abortion: a multicenter trial. I. Safety and efficacy. Contraception. Jun 1996;53(6):321-327.
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23. Creinin MD, Vittinghoff E, Schaff E, Klaisle C, Darney PD, Dean C. Medical abortion with oral methotrexate and vaginal misoprostol. Obstet Gynecol. Oct 1997;90(4 Pt 1):611-616.
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24. Creinin MD, Wiebe E, Gold M. Methotrexate and misoprostol for early abortion in adolescent women. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. May 1999;12(2):71-77.
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25. Koenig JD, Tapias MP, Hoff T, Stewart FH. Are US health professionals likely to prescribe mifepristone or methotrexate? J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):155-160.
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26. Kulier R, Gulmezoglu AM, Hofmeyr GJ, Cheng LN, Campana A. Medical methods for first trimester abortion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(2):CD002855.
Link to PubMed

27. Kulier R, Gulmezoglu AM, Hofmeyr GJ, Cheng LN, Campana A. Medical methods for first trimester abortion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(1):CD002855.
Link to PubMed

28. Ozeren M, Bilekli C, Aydemir V, Bozkaya H. Methotrexate and misoprostol used alone or in combination for early abortion. Contraception. Jun 1999;59(6):389-394.
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29. Ozeren S, Corakci A, Yucesoy I, Mercan R, Arslan A, Erhan G. Efficacy of methotrexate and misoprostol for early abortion. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;44(2):112-114.
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30. Pymar HC, Creinin MD. Alternatives to mifepristone regimens for medical abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Aug 2000;183(2 Suppl):S54-64.
Link to PubMed

31. Schaff EA, Eisinger SH, Franks P, Kim SS. Methotrexate and misoprostol for early abortion. Fam Med. Mar 1996;28(3):198-203.
Link to PubMed

32. Schaff EA, Eisinger SH, Stadalius LS. Weighing The Options In Medical Abortion. Medscape Womens Health. Sep 1997;2(9):1.
Link to PubMed

33. Schaff EA, Penmetsa U, Eisinger SH, Franks P. Methotrexate. A single agent for early abortion. J Reprod Med. Jan 1997;42(1):56-60.
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34. von Hertzen H. Research on regimens for early medical abortion. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):133-136, 150.
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35. Wiebe ER. Abortion induced with methotrexate and misoprostol: a comparison of various protocols. Contraception. Mar 1997;55(3):159-163.
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36. Wiebe ER. Choosing between surgical abortions and medical abortions induced with methotrexate and misoprostol. Contraception. Feb 1997;55(2):67-71.
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37. Wiebe ER. Tamoxifen compared to methotrexate when used with misoprostol for abortion. Contraception. Apr 1999;59(4):265-270.
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Misoprostol Alone Regimens

1. Billings DL. Misoprostol alone for early medical abortion in a Latin American clinic setting. Reprod Health Matters. Nov 2004;12(24 Suppl):57-64.
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2. Blanchard K, Shochet T, Coyaji K, Thi Nhu Ngoc N, Winikoff B. Misoprostol alone for early abortion: an evaluation of seven potential regimens. Contraception. Aug 2005;72(2):91-97.
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3. Blanchard K, Winikoff B, Coyaji K, Nguyen TN. Misoprostol alone--a new method of medical abortion? J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):189-190.
Link to PubMed

4. Blanchard K, Winikoff B, Ellertson C. Misoprostol used alone for the termination of early pregnancy. A review of the evidence. Contraception. Apr 1999;59(4):209-217.
Link to PubMed

5. Borgatta L, Mullally B, Vragovic O, Gittinger E, Chen A. Misoprostol as the primary agent for medical abortion in a low-income urban setting. Contraception. Aug 2004;70(2):121-126.
Link to PubMed

6. Carbonell JL, Rodriguez J, Aragon S, et al. Vaginal misoprostol 1000 microg for early abortion. Contraception. Mar 2001;63(3):131-136.
Link to PubMed

7. Carbonell JL, Velazco A, Varela L, et al. Misoprostol for abortion at 9-12 weeks' gestation in adolescents. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. Mar 2001;6(1):39-45.
Link to PubMed

8. Creinin MD, Moyer R, Guido R. Misoprostol for medical evacuation of early pregnancy failure. Obstet Gynecol. May 1997;89(5 Pt 1):768-772.
Link to PubMed

9. Creinin MD, Shore E, Balasubramanian S, Harwood B. The true cost differential between mifepristone and misoprostol and misoprostol-alone regimens for medical abortion. Contraception. Jan 2005;71(1):26-30.
Link to PubMed

10. Jain JK, Dutton C, Harwood B, Meckstroth KR, Mishell DR, Jr. A prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial comparing mifepristone and vaginal misoprostol to vaginal misoprostol alone for elective termination of early pregnancy. Hum Reprod. Jun 2002;17(6):1477-1482.
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11. Jones MM, Fraser K. Misoprostol and attempted self-induction of abortion. J R Soc Med. Apr 1998;91(4):204-205.
Link to PubMed

12. Kulier R, Gulmezoglu AM, Hofmeyr GJ, Cheng LN, Campana A. Medical methods for first trimester abortion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(2):CD002855.
Link to PubMed

13. Kulier R, Gulmezoglu AM, Hofmeyr GJ, Cheng LN, Campana A. Medical methods for first trimester abortion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(1):CD002855.
Link to PubMed

14. Meckstroth KR, Darney PD. Prostaglandins for first-trimester termination. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. Oct 2003;17(5):745-763.
Link to PubMed

15. Ngai SW, Tang OS, Chan YM, Ho PC. Vaginal misoprostol alone for medical abortion up to 9 weeks of gestation: efficacy and acceptability. Hum Reprod. May 2000;15(5):1159-1162.
Link to PDF

16. Pymar HC, Creinin MD. Alternatives to mifepristone regimens for medical abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Aug 2000;183(2 Suppl):S54-64.
Link to PubMed

17. Rosing MA, Archbald CD. The knowledge, acceptability, and use of misoprostol for self-induced medical abortion in an urban US population. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):183-185.
Link to PubMed

18. Say L, Kulier R, Gulmezoglu M, Campana A. Medical versus surgical methods for first trimester termination of pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002(4):CD003037.
Link to PubMed

19. Say L, Kulier R, Gulmezoglu M, Campana A. Medical versus surgical methods for first trimester termination of pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005(1):CD003037.
Link to PubMed

20. Singh K, Fong YF, Dong F. A viable alternative to surgical vacuum aspiration: repeated doses of intravaginal misoprostol over 9 hours for medical termination of pregnancies up to eight weeks. Bjog. Feb 2003;110(2):175-180.
Link to PubMed

21. Velazco A, Varela L, Tanda R, et al. Misoprostol for abortion up to 9 weeks' gestation in adolescents. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. Dec 2000;5(4):227-233.
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22. von Hertzen H. Research on regimens for early medical abortion. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):133-136, 150.
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23. Zikopoulos KA, Papanikolaou EG, Kalantaridou SN, et al. Early pregnancy termination with vaginal misoprostol before and after 42 days gestation. Hum Reprod. Dec 2002;17(12):3079-3083.
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Mifepristone Regimens

1. Termination of pregnancy with reduced doses of mifepristone. World Health Organisation Task Force on Post-ovulatory Methods of Fertility Regulation. Bmj. Aug 28 1993;307(6903):532-537.
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2. Comparison of two doses of mifepristone in combination with misoprostol for early medical abortion: a randomised trial. World Health Organisation Task Force on Post-ovulatory Methods of Fertility Regulation. Bjog. Apr 2000;107(4):524-530.
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3. Medical abortion at 57 to 63 days' gestation with a lower dose of mifepristone and gemeprost. A randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. May 2001;80(5):447-451.
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4. Lowering the doses of mifepristone and gameprost for early abortion: a randomised controlled trial. World Health Organization Task Force on Post-ovulatory Methods for Fertility Regulation. Bjog. Jul 2001;108(7):738-742.
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5. Ashima T, Vinita A, Shalini R. Early medical abortion: a new regimen up to 49 days' gestation. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. Apr 2005;45(2):137-139.
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6. Ashok PW, Penney GC, Flett GM, Templeton A. An effective regimen for early medical abortion: a report of 2000 consecutive cases. Hum Reprod. Oct 1998;13(1O):2962-2965.
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7. Ashok PW, Templeton A, Wagaarachchi PT, Flett GM. Factors affecting the outcome of early medical abortion: a review of 4132 consecutive cases. Bjog. Nov 2002;109(11):1281-1289.
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8. Baird DT. Medical abortion in the first trimester. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. Apr 2002;16(2):221-236.
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9. Bartley J, Brown A, Elton R, Baird DT. Double-blind randomized trial of mifepristone in combination with vaginal gemeprost or misoprostol for induction of abortion up to 63 days gestation. Hum Reprod. Oct 2001;16(10):2098-2102.
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10. Beal MW, Simmonds K. Clinical uses of mifepristone: an update for women's health practitioners. J Midwifery Womens Health. Nov-Dec 2002;47(6):451-460.
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11. Creinin MD, Shore E, Balasubramanian S, Harwood B. The true cost differential between mifepristone and misoprostol and misoprostol-alone regimens for medical abortion. Contraception. Jan 2005;71(1):26-30.
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12. Ellertson C, Simonds W, Winikoff B, Springer K, Bagchi D. Providing mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion: the view from the clinic. J Am Med Womens Assoc. Spring 1999;54(2):91-96.
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13. Ellertson C, Waldman SN. The mifepristone-misoprostol regimen for early medical abortion. Curr Womens Health Rep. Dec 2001;1(3):184-190.
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14. Ferriman A. Medical abortion still not available in most countries. Bmj. Oct 23 1999;319(7217):1091.
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15. Fiala C, Winikoff B, Helstrom L, Hellborg M, Gemzell-Danielsson K. Acceptability of home-use of misoprostol in medical abortion. Contraception. Nov 2004;70(5):387-392.
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16. Fielding SL, Schaff EA, Nam NY. Clinicians' perception of sonogram indication for mifepristone abortion up to 63 days. Contraception. Jul 2002;66(1):27-31.
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17. Gemperli MP, Stewart FH, Phillips KA, Sakowski J, Van Bebber S, Bergthold L. A qualitative study of insurers' coverage for mifepristone-induced abortion. Manag Care Interface. Mar 2005;18(3):26-30, 32.
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18. Goldberg JR, Plescia MG, Anastasio GD. Mifepristone (RU 486): current knowledge and future prospects. Arch Fam Med. May-Jun 1998;7(3):219-222.
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19. Grimes DA. Medical abortion in early pregnancy: a review of the evidence. Obstet Gynecol. May 1997;89(5 Pt 1):790-796.
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20. Guest J, Chien P, Thomson M, Kosseim ML. Randomised controlled trial comparing efficacy of same day administration of mifepristone and misoprostol for termination of pregnancy with the standard 36- to 48-hour protocol. Bjog. Oct 2005;112(10):1457.
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21. Hamoda H, Ashok PW, Flett GM, Templeton A. A randomised controlled trial of mifepristone in combination with misoprostol administered sublingually or vaginally for medical abortion up to 13 weeks of gestation. Bjog. Aug 2005;112(8):1102-1108.
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22. Hamoda H, Critchley HO, Paterson K, Guthrie K, Rodger M, Penney GC. The acceptability of home medical abortion to women in UK settings. Bjog. Jun 2005;112(6):781-785.
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23. Harper C, Ellertson C, Winikoff B. Could American women use mifepristone-misoprostol pills safely with less medical supervision? Contraception. Feb 2002;65(2):133-142.
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24. Harper C, Winikoff B, Ellertson C, Coyaji K. Blood loss with mifepristone--misoprostol abortion: measures from a trial in China, Cuba and India. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. Oct 1998;63(1):39-49.
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25. Harvey SM, Beckman LJ, Satre SJ. Experiences and satisfaction with providing methotrexate-induced abortions among US providers. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):161-163.
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26. Hausknecht R. Mifepristone and misoprostol for early medical abortion: 18 months experience in the United States. Contraception. Jun 2003;67(6):463-465.
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27. Hedley A, Ellertson C, Trussell J, et al. Accounting for time: insights from a life-table analysis of the efficacy of medical abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Dec 2004;191(6):1928-1933.
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28. Hedley A, Trussell J, Turner AN, et al. Differences in efficacy, differences in providers: results from a hazard analysis of medical abortion. Contraception. Feb 2004;69(2):157-163.
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29. Henshaw RC, Naji SA, Russell IT, Templeton AA. Comparison of medical abortion with surgical vacuum aspiration: women's preferences and acceptability of treatment. Bmj. Sep 18 1993;307(6906):714-717.
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30. Henshaw RC, Naji SA, Russell IT, Templeton AA. A comparison of medical abortion (using mifepristone and gemeprost) with surgical vacuum aspiration: efficacy and early medical sequelae. Hum Reprod. Nov 1994;9(11):2167-2172.
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31. Holmgren K. Women's evaluation of three early abortion methods. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. Dec 1992;71(8):616-623.
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32. Honkanen H, Piaggio G, Hertzen H, et al. WHO multinational study of three misoprostol regimens after mifepristone for early medical abortion. Bjog. Jul 2004;111(7):715-725.
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33. Howie FL, Henshaw RC, Naji SA, Russell IT, Templeton AA. Medical abortion or vacuum aspiration? Two year follow up of a patient preference trial. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. Jul 1997;104(7):829-833.
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34. Jain JK, Dutton C, Harwood B, Meckstroth KR, Mishell DR, Jr. A prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial comparing mifepristone and vaginal misoprostol to vaginal misoprostol alone for elective termination of early pregnancy. Hum Reprod. Jun 2002;17(6):1477-1482.
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35. Jones RK, Henshaw SK. Mifepristone for early medical abortion: experiences in France, Great Britain and Sweden. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. May-Jun 2002;34(3):154-161.
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36. Kahn JG, Becker BJ, MacIsaa L, et al. The efficacy of medical abortion: a meta-analysis. Contraception. Jan 2000;61(1):29-40.
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37. Knudsen UB. First trimester abortion with mifepristone and vaginal misoprostol. Contraception. May 2001;63(5):247-250.
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38. Koenig JD, Tapias MP, Hoff T, Stewart FH. Are US health professionals likely to prescribe mifepristone or methotrexate? J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):155-160.
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39. Kulier R, Gulmezoglu AM, Hofmeyr GJ, Cheng LN, Campana A. Medical methods for first trimester abortion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(2):CD002855.
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40. Kulier R, Gulmezoglu AM, Hofmeyr GJ, Cheng LN, Campana A. Medical methods for first trimester abortion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(1):CD002855.
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41. Liao AH, Han XJ, Wu SY, Xiao D, Xiong CL, Wu XR. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of mifepristone in capsule versus tablet form followed by misoprostol for early medical abortion. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. Oct 15 2004;116(2):211-216.
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42. Mackenzie SJ, Yeo S. Pregnancy interruption using mifepristone (RU-486). A new choice for women in the USA. J Nurse Midwifery. Mar-Apr 1997;42(2):86-90.
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43. Mamers PM, Lavelle AL, Evans AJ, Bell SM, Rusden JR, Healy DL. Women's satisfaction with medical abortion with RU486. Med J Aust. Sep 15 1997;167(6):316-317.
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44. Martin CW, Brown AH, Baird DT. A pilot study of the effect of methotrexate or combined oral contraceptive on bleeding patterns after induction of abortion with mifepristone and a prostaglandin pessary. Contraception. Aug 1998;58(2):99-103.
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45. McKinley C, Thong KJ, Baird DT. The effect of dose of mifepristone and gestation on the efficacy of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol. Hum Reprod. Sep 1993;8(9):1502-1505.
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46. Meckstroth KR, Darney PD. Prostaglandins for first-trimester termination. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. Oct 2003;17(5):745-763.
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47. Mittal S, Agarwal S, Kumar S, Batra A. Comparison or oral versus vaginal misoprostol & continued use of misoprostol after mifepristone for early medical abortion. Indian J Med Res. Aug 2005;122(2):132-136.
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48. Murthy AS, Creinin MD, Harwood B, Schreiber C. A pilot study of mifepristone and misoprostol administered at the same time for abortion up to 49 days gestation. Contraception. May 2005;71(5):333-336.
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49. Newhall EP, Winikoff B. Abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol: regimens, efficacy, acceptability and future directions. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Aug 2000;183(2 Suppl):S44-53.
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50. Norman JE, Thong KJ, Rodger MW, Baird DT. Medical abortion in women of less than or equal to 56 days amenorrhoea: a comparison between gemeprost (a PGE1 analogue) alone and mifepristone and gemeprost. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. Jul 1992;99(7):601-606.
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51. Paul M, Schaff E, Nichols M. The roles of clinical assessment, human chorionic gonadotropin assays, and ultrasonography in medical abortion practice. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Aug 2000;183(2 Suppl):S34-43.
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52. Phelps RH, Schaff EA, Fielding SL. Mifepristone abortion in minors. Contraception. Dec 2001;64(6):339-343.
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53. Prasad RN, Choolani M, Roy A, Ratnam SS. Blood loss in termination of early pregnancy with mifepristone and gemeprost. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. Aug 1995;35(3):329-331.
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54. Rademakers J, Koster E, Jansen-van Hees AC, Willems F. Medical abortion as an alternative to vacuum aspiration: first experiences with the 'abortion pill' in The Netherlands. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. Dec 2001;6(4):185-191.
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55. Ravn P, Rasmussen A, Knudsen UB, Kristiansen FV. An outpatient regimen of combined oral mifepristone 400 mg and misoprostol 400 microg for first-trimester legal medical abortion. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. Nov 2005;84(11):1098-1102.
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56. Rossi B, Creinin MD, Meyn LA. Ability of the clinician and patient to predict the outcome of mifepristone and misoprostol medical abortion. Contraception. Oct 2004;70(4):313-317.
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57. Sang GW, Weng LJ, Shao QX, et al. Termination of early pregnancy by two regimens of mifepristone with misoprostol and mifepristone with PG05--a multicentre randomized clinical trial in China. Contraception. Dec 1994;50(6):501-510.
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58. Schaff EA, DiCenzo R, Fielding SL. Comparison of misoprostol plasma concentrations following buccal and sublingual administration. Contraception. Jan 2005;71(1):22-25.
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59. Schaff EA, Eisinger SH, Stadalius LS. Weighing The Options In Medical Abortion. Medscape Womens Health. Sep 1997;2(9):1.
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60. Schaff EA, Eisinger SH, Stadalius LS, Franks P, Gore BZ, Poppema S. Low-dose mifepristone 200 mg and vaginal misoprostol for abortion. Contraception. Jan 1999;59(1):1-6.
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61. Schaff EA, Fielding SL. A comparison of the Abortion Rights Mobilization and Population Council trials. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):137-140.
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62. Schaff EA, Fielding SL, Eisinger SH, Stadalius LS, Fuller L. Low-dose mifepristone followed by vaginal misoprostol at 48 hours for abortion up to 63 days. Contraception. Jan 2000;61(1):41-46.
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63. Schaff EA, Fielding SL, Westhoff C. Randomized trial of oral versus vaginal misoprostol at one day after mifepristone for early medical abortion. Contraception. Aug 2001;64(2):81-85.
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64. Schaff EA, Fielding SL, Westhoff C. Randomized trial of oral versus vaginal misoprostol 2 days after mifepristone 200 mg for abortion up to 63 days of pregnancy. Contraception. Oct 2002;66(4):247-250.
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65. Schaff EA, Fielding SL, Westhoff C, et al. Vaginal misoprostol administered 1, 2, or 3 days after mifepristone for early medical abortion: A randomized trial. Jama. Oct 18 2000;284(15):1948-1953.
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66. Schaff EA, Stadalius LS, Eisinger SH, Franks P. Vaginal misoprostol administered at home after mifepristone (RU486) for abortion. J Fam Pract. Apr 1997;44(4):353-360.
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67. Schreiber CA, Creinin MD, Harwood B, Murthy AS. A pilot study of mifepristone and misoprostol administered at the same time for abortion in women with gestation from 50 to 63 days. Contraception. Jun 2005;71(6):447-450.
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68. Shannon CS, Winikoff B, Hausknecht R, et al. Multicenter trial of a simplified mifepristone medical abortion regimen. Obstet Gynecol. Feb 2005;105(2):345-351.
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69. Simonds W, Ellertson C, Springer K, Winikoff B. Abortion, revised: participants in the U.S. clinical trials evaluate mifepristone. Soc Sci Med. May 1998;46(10):1313-1323.
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70. Slade P, Heke S, Fletcher J, Stewart P. A comparison of medical and surgical termination of pregnancy: choice, emotional impact and satisfaction with care. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. Dec 1998;105(12):1288-1295.
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71. Spitz IM, Bardin CW, Benton L, Robbins A. Early pregnancy termination with mifepristone and misoprostol in the United States. N Engl J Med. Apr 30 1998;338(18):1241-1247.
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72. Stubblefield PG, Carr-Ellis S, Borgatta L. Methods for induced abortion. Obstet Gynecol. Jul 2004;104(1):174-185.
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73. Swahn ML, Bygdeman M. Medical methods to terminate early pregnancy. Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynaecol. Jun 1990;4(2):293-306.
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74. Tang OS, Chan CC, Ng EH, Lee SW, Ho PC. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the use of mifepristone with sublingual or vaginal misoprostol for medical abortions of less than 9 weeks gestation. Hum Reprod. Nov 2003;18(11):2315-2318.
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75. Tang OS, Ho PC. Pilot study on the use of sublingual misoprostol for medical abortion. Contraception. Nov 2001;64(5):315-317.
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76. Tang OS, Lee SW, Ho PC. A prospective randomized study on the measured blood loss in medical termination of early pregnancy by three different misoprostol regimens after pretreatment with mifepristone. Hum Reprod. Nov 2002;17(11):2865-2868.
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77. Tang OS, Miao BY, Lee SW, Ho PC. Pilot study on the use of repeated doses of sublingual misoprostol in termination of pregnancy up to 12 weeks gestation: efficacy and acceptability. Hum Reprod. Mar 2002;17(3):654-658.
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78. Tang OS, Schweer H, Seyberth HW, Lee SW, Ho PC. Pharmacokinetics of different routes of administration of misoprostol. Hum Reprod. Feb 2002;17(2):332-336.
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79. Tang OS, Xu J, Cheng L, Lee SW, Ho PC. Pilot study on the use of sublingual misoprostol with mifepristone in termination of first trimester pregnancy up to 9 weeks gestation. Hum Reprod. Jul 2002;17(7):1738-1740.
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80. Tang OS, Xu J, Cheng L, Lee SW, Ho PC. The effect of contraceptive pills on the measured blood loss in medical termination of pregnancy by mifepristone and misoprostol: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Hum Reprod. Jan 2002;17(1):99-102.
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81. Thong KJ, Brooks AN, Baird DT. Dose and time dependent rise of plasma cortisol following administration of mifepristone in early pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. Sep 1993;100(9):880-882.
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82. Trussell J, Ellertson C. Estimating the efficacy of medical abortion. Contraception. Sep 1999;60(3):119-135.
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83. Ulmann A. The development of mifepristone: a pharmaceutical drama in three acts. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2000;55(3 Suppl):117-120.
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84. von Hertzen H, Honkanen H, Piaggio G, et al. WHO multinational study of three misoprostol regimens after mifepristone for early medical abortion. I: Efficacy. Bjog. Sep 2003;110(9):808-818.
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87. Winikoff B, Coyaji K, Cabezas E, et al. Studying the acceptability and feasibility of medical abortion. Law Med Health Care. Fall 1992;20(3):195-198.
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88. Winikoff B, Ellertson C, Elul B, Sivin I. Acceptability and feasibility of early pregnancy termination by mifepristone-misoprostol. Results of a large multicenter trial in the United States. Mifepristone Clinical Trials Group. Arch Fam Med. Jul-Aug 1998;7(4):360-366.
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89. Winikoff B, Sivin I, Coyaji KJ, et al. Safety, efficacy, and acceptability of medical abortion in China, Cuba, and India: a comparative trial of mifepristone-misoprostol versus surgical abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Feb 1997;176(2):431-437.
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