EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION BIBLIOGRAPHY

Access Issues

Safety, Efficacy, Timing & Regimens

Mechanism of Action

Copper IUD for Emergency Contraception

Use in Young Women and Teens

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EC Access Issues

1. Improving access to emergency contraception. Contracept Technol Update. Aug 2000;21(8):93-94.
Link to PubMed

2. ACOG practice bulletin. Emergency oral contraception. Number 25, March 2001. (Replace Practice Pattern Number 3, December 1996). American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. Aug 2002;78(2):191-198.
Link to PubMed

3. Emergency contraception. Pediatrics. Oct 2005;116(4):1026-1035.
Link to PubMed

4. Emergency contraception moves behind the counter. Cmaj. Mar 29 2005;172(7):845, 847.
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5. Bajos N, Goulard H, Job-Spira N. Emergency contraception: from accessibility to counseling. Contraception. Jan 2003;67(1):39-40.
Link to PubMed

6. Belzer M, Sanchez K, Olson J, Jacobs AM, Tucker D. Advance supply of emergency contraception: a randomized trial in adolescent mothers. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. Oct 2005;18(5):347-354.
Link to PubMed

7. Bennett W, Petraitis C, D'Anella A, Marcella S. Pharmacists' knowledge and the difficulty of obtaining emergency contraception. Contraception. Oct 2003;68(4):261-267.
Link to PubMed

8. Bissell P, Anderson C. Supplying emergency contraception via community pharmacies in the UK: reflections on the experiences of users and providers. Soc Sci Med. Dec 2003;57(12):2367-2378.
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9. Blanchard K, Bungay H, Furedi A, Sanders L. Evaluation of an emergency contraception advance provision service. Contraception. May 2003;67(5):343-348.
Link to PubMed

10. Boggess JE. How can pharmacies improve access to emergency contraception? Perspect Sex Reprod Health. May-Jun 2002;34(3):162-165.
Link to Full Text

11. Camp SL, Wilkerson DS, Raine TR. The benefits and risks of over-the-counter availability of levonorgestrel emergency contraception. Contraception. Nov 2003;68(5):309-317.
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12. Chuang CH, Freund KM. Emergency contraception: an intervention on primary care providers. Contraception. Sep 2005;72(3):182-186.
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13. Cohen MM, Dunn S, Cockerill R, Brown TE. Emergency contraception: models to increase accessibility. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. Jun 2003;25(6):499-504.
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14. Cooper N, Blackwell D, Taylor G, Holden K. Pharmacist's perceptions of nurse prescribing of emergency contraception. Br J Community Nurs. Mar 2000;5(3):126-131.
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15. Dunn S, Brown TE, Cohen MM, et al. Pharmacy provision of emergency contraception: the Ontario emergency contraception pilot project. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. Nov 2003;25(11):923-930.
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16. Espey E, Ogburn T, Howard D, Qualls C, Ogburn J. Emergency contraception: pharmacy access in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Obstet Gynecol. Nov 2003;102(5 Pt 1):918-921.
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17. Fairhurst K, Wyke S, Ziebland S, Seaman P, Glasier A. "Not that sort of practice": the views and behaviour of primary care practitioners in a study of advance provision of emergency contraception. Fam Pract. Jun 2005;22(3):280-286.
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18. Gainer E, Sollet C, Ulmann M, Levy D, Ulmann A. Surfing on the morning after: analysis of an emergency contraception website. Contraception. Mar 2003;67(3):195-199.
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19. Gallagher J. Religious freedom, reproductive health care, and hospital mergers. J Am Med Womens Assoc. Spring 1997;52(2):65-68.
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20. Gardner JS, Hutchings J, Fuller TS, Downing D. Increasing access to emergency contraception through community pharmacies: lessons from Washington State. Fam Plann Perspect. Jul-Aug 2001;33(4):172-175.
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21. Gold MA. Emergency contraception: a second chance at preventing adolescent unintended pregnancy. Curr Opin Pediatr. Aug 1997;9(4):300-309.
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22. Grimes DA. Emergency contraception and fire extinguishers: a prevention paradox. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Dec 2002;187(6):1536-1538.
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23. Grimes DA, Raymond EG, Scott Jones B. Emergency contraception over-the-counter: the medical and legal imperatives. Obstet Gynecol. Jul 2001;98(1):151-155.
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24. Harrison T. Availability of emergency contraception: a survey of hospital emergency department staff. Ann Emerg Med. Aug 2005;46(2):105-110.
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25. Harrison-Woolrych M, Howe J, Smith C. Improving access to emergency contraception. Bmj. Jan 27 2001;322(7280):186-187.
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26. Hellerstedt WL, Van Riper KK. Emergency contraceptive pills: dispensing practices, knowledge and attitudes of South Dakota pharmacists. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. Mar 2005;37(1):19-24.
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27. Hu X, Cheng L, Hua X, Glasier A. Advanced provision of emergency contraception to postnatal women in China makes no difference in abortion rates: a randomized controlled trial. Contraception. Aug 2005;72(2):111-116.
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28. Karasz A, Kirchen NT, Gold M. The visit before the morning after: barriers to preprescribing emergency contraception. Ann Fam Med. Jul-Aug 2004;2(4):345-350.
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29. Kissling F. A callous and coercive policy. Conscience. Summer 1999;20(2):12-14.
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30. Mathew S, Urquhart R. Awareness of emergency contraception. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. Apr 2005;31(2):113-114.
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31. Moreau C, Bouyer J, Goulard H, Bajos N. The remaining barriers to the use of emergency contraception: perception of pregnancy risk by women undergoing induced abortions. Contraception. Mar 2005;71(3):202-207.
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31. Patel A, Simons R, Piotrowski ZH, Shulman L, Petraitis C. Under-use of emergency contraception for victims of sexual assault. Int J Fertil Womens Med. Nov-Dec 2004;49(6):269-273.
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32. Pentel PR, Nelson B, Wikelius N, Cooper C. Hospital-based program for increasing the availability of emergency contraception: simulating nonprescription access. Am J Health Syst Pharm. Apr 15 2004;61(8):777-780.
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33. Pierce SE, Vaughn M, Katcher ML. Increasing access to affordable contraception: a look at the Wisconsin Medicaid Family Planning Waiver. Wmj. 2004;103(5):14-18.
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34. Polis C, Blanchard K, Glasier A, et al. Advance provision of emergency contraception for pregnancy prevention. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005(4):Art. No.: CD005497.
Link to Cochrane Reviews

35. Polis C, Schaffer K, Harrison T. Accessibility of emergency contraception in California's Catholic hospitals. Womens Health Issues. Jul-Aug 2005;15(4):174-178.
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36. Raine TR, Harper CC, Rocca CH, et al. Direct access to emergency contraception through pharmacies and effect on unintended pregnancy and STIs: a randomized controlled trial. Jama. Jan 5 2005;293(1):54-62.
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37. Rosenberg KD, Demunter JK, Liu J. Emergency contraception in emergency departments in Oregon, 2003. Am J Public Health. Aug 2005;95(8):1453-1457.
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38. Schenk KD. Emergency contraception: lessons learned from the UK. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. Apr 2003;29(2):35-40.
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39. Shawe J, Ineichen B, Lawrenson R. Emergency contraception: Who are the users? J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. Oct 2001;27(4):209-212.
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40. Shelton JD. Repeat emergency contraception: facing our fears. Contraception. Jul 2002;66(1):15-17.
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41. Sibbald B. Nonprescription status for emergency contraception. Cmaj. Mar 29 2005;172(7):861-862.
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42. Soon JA, Levine M, Osmond BL, Ensom MH, Fielding DW. Effects of making emergency contraception available without a physician's prescription: a population-based study. Cmaj. Mar 29 2005;172(7):878-883.
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43. Temin E, Coles T, Feldman JA, Mehta SD. Availability of emergency contraception in Massachusetts emergency departments. Acad Emerg Med. Oct 2005;12(10):987-993.
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44. Trussell J, Duran V, Shochet T, Moore K. Access to emergency contraception. Obstet Gynecol. Feb 2000;95(2):267-270.
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45. Wallace JL, Wu J, Weinstein J, Gorenflo DW, Fetters MD. Emergency contraception: knowledge and attitudes of family medicine providers. Fam Med. Jun 2004;36(6):417-422.
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46. Weir E. Emergency contraception: a matter of dedication and access. Cmaj. Oct 16 2001;165(8):1095.
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47. Wells ES, Hutchings J, Gardner JS, et al. Using pharmacies in Washington state to expand access to emergency contraception. Fam Plann Perspect. Nov-Dec 1998;30(6):288-290.
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48. Wynn L, Trussell J. The morning after on the internet: usage of and questions to the emergency contraception website. Contraception. Jul 2005;72(1):5-13.
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49. Ziebland S, Wyke S, Seaman P, Fairhurst K, Walker J, Glasier A. What happened when Scottish women were given advance supplies of emergency contraception? A survey and qualitative study of women's views and experiences. Soc Sci Med. Apr 2005;60(8):1767-1779.
Link to PubMed

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EC Safety, Efficacy, Timing & Regimens

1. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) protocol. Contracept Technol Update. May 1994;15(5):63-64.
Link to PubMed

2. FDA finds emergency postcoital contraception safe and effective. Reprod Freedom News. Jul 12 1996;5(12):7.
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3. Randomised controlled trial of levonorgestrel versus the Yuzpe regimen of combined oral contraceptives for emergency contraception. Task Force on Postovulatory Methods of Fertility Regulation. Lancet. Aug 8 1998;352(9126):428-433.
Link to PubMed

4. Levonorgestrel is more effective, has fewer side-effects, than Yuzpe regimen. Prog Hum Reprod Res. 1999(51):3-5.
Link to PubMed

5. Emergency contraception: how effective is it? Prog Hum Reprod Res. 1999(51):2.
Link to PubMed

6. ACOG practice bulletin. Emergency oral contraception. Number 25, March 2001. (Replace Practice Pattern Number 3, December 1996). American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. Aug 2002;78(2):191-198.
Link to PubMed

7. Apgar BS, Greenberg G. Using progestins in clinical practice. Am Fam Physician. Oct 15 2000;62(8):1839-1846, 1849-1850.
Link to Full Text

8. Arowojolu AO, Okewole IA, Adekunle AO. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of two regimens of levonorgestrel for emergency contraception in Nigerians. Contraception. Oct 2002;66(4):269-273.
Link to PubMed

9. Ashok PW, Hamoda H, Flett GM, Templeton A. Mifepristone versus the Yuzpe regimen (PC4) for emergency contraception. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. Nov 2004;87(2):188-193.
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10. Camp SI. The status of dedicated products. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 1998;53(5 Suppl 2):225.
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11. Cheng L, Gulmezoglu AM, Oel CJ, Piaggio G, Ezcurra E, Look PF. Interventions for emergency contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(3):CD001324.
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12. Comparetto C, Giudici S, Coccia ME, Scarselli G, Borruto F. Clinical, ethical, and medical legal considerations on emergency contraception. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2005;32(2):107-110.
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13. Creinin MD. A reassessment of efficacy of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception. Hum Reprod. Mar 1997;12(3):496-498.
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14. De Santis M, Cavaliere AF, Straface G, Carducci B, Caruso A. Failure of the emergency contraceptive levonorgestrel and the risk of adverse effects in pregnancy and on fetal development: an observational cohort study. Fertil Steril. Aug 2005;84(2):296-299.
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15. Ellertson C, Evans M, Ferden S, et al. Extending the time limit for starting the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception to 120 hours. Obstet Gynecol. Jun 2003;101(6):1168-1171.
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16. Ellertson C, Webb A, Blanchard K, et al. Modifying the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. Jun 2003;101(6):1160-1167.
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17. Glasier A. Emergency contraception. Br Med Bull. 2000;56(3):729-738.
Link to PubMed

18. Glasier A. Emergency contraception. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. Apr 2002;16(2):181-191.
Link to PubMed

19. Gold MA. Emergency contraception: a second chance at preventing adolescent unintended pregnancy. Curr Opin Pediatr. Aug 1997;9(4):300-309.
Link to PubMed

20. Grimes DA, Raymond EG. Bundling a pregnancy test with the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception. Obstet Gynecol. Sep 1999;94(3):471-473.
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21. Grimes DA, Raymond EG. Emergency contraception. Ann Intern Med. Aug 6 2002;137(3):180-189.
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22. Guillebaud J. Time for emergency contraception with levonorgestrel alone. Lancet. Aug 8 1998;352(9126):416-417.
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23. Hamoda H, Ashok PW, Stalder C, Flett GM, Kennedy E, Templeton A. A randomized trial of mifepristone (10 mg) and levonorgestrel for emergency contraception. Obstet Gynecol. Dec 2004;104(6):1307-1313.
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24. Ho PC. Emergency contraception: methods and efficacy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. Jun 2000;12(3):175-179.
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25. Ho PC. Mifepristone: a potential postcoital contraceptive. Expert Opin Pharmacother. Sep 2001;2(9):1383-1388.
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26. Ho PC, Kwan MS. A prospective randomized comparison of levonorgestrel with the Yuzpe regimen in post-coital contraception. Hum Reprod. Mar 1993;8(3):389-392.
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27. Kestelman P. When is "emergency" contraception the right name for postcoital treatment? Plan Parent Eur. Aug 1995;24(2):7-10.
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28. Kives S, Hahn PM, White E, Stanczyk FZ, Reid RL. Bioavailability of the Yuzpe and levonorgestrel regimens of emergency contraception: vaginal vs. oral administration. Contraception. Mar 2005;71(3):197-201.
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29. Kubba A. Emergency contraception with levonorgestrel or the Yuzpe regimen. Lancet. Dec 12 1998;352(9144):1939-1940.
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30. Lee SM, Dunn S, Evans MF. Levonorgestrel versus the "Yuzpe" regimen. New choices in emergency contraception. Can Fam Physician. Mar 1999;45:629-631.
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31. Marciante KD, Gardner JS, Veenstra DL, Sullivan SD. Modeling the cost and outcomes of pharmacist-prescribed emergency contraception. Am J Public Health. Sep 2001;91(9):1443-1445.
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32. Mor E, Saadat P, Kives S, et al. Comparison of vaginal and oral administration of emergency contraception. Fertil Steril. Jul 2005;84(1):40-45.
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33. Ngai SW, Fan S, Li S, et al. A randomized trial to compare 24 h versus 12 h double dose regimen of levonorgestrel for emergency contraception. Hum Reprod. Jan 2005;20(1):307-311.
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34. Piaggio G, Heng Z, von Hertzen H, Bilian X, Linan C. Combined estimates of effectiveness of mifepristone 10 mg in emergency contraception. Contraception. Dec 2003;68(6):439-446.
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35. Raymond E, Taylor D, Trussell J, Steiner MJ. Minimum effectiveness of the levonorgestrel regimen of emergency contraception. Contraception. Jan 2004;69(1):79-81.
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36. Raymond EG, Creinin MD, Barnhart KT, Lovvorn AE, Rountree RW, Trussell J. Meclizine for prevention of nausea associated with use of emergency contraceptive pills: a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol. Feb 2000;95(2):271-277.
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37. Raymond EG, Lovely LP, Chen-Mok M, Seppala M, Kurman RJ, Lessey BA. Effect of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception on markers of endometrial receptivity. Hum Reprod. Nov 2000;15(11):2351-2355.
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38. Rovi S, Shimoni N. Prophylaxis provided to sexual assault victims seen at US emergency departments. J Am Med Womens Assoc. Fall 2002;57(4):204-207.
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39. Schein AB. Pregnancy prevention using emergency contraception: efficacy, attitudes, and limitations to use. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. Feb 1999;12(1):3-9.
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40. Schwartz JL. Release of progestin-only emergency contraception. Curr Womens Health Rep. Dec 2001;1(3):191-195.
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41. Shochet T, Blanchard K, King H, et al. Side effects of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception and two modifications. Contraception. Apr 2004;69(4):301-307.
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42. Strayer SM, Couchenour RL. Combined oral contraceptives versus levonorgestrel for emergency contraception. J Fam Pract. Dec 1998;47(6):417.
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43. Trussell J, Ellertson C, Dorflinger L. Effectiveness of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception by cycle day of intercourse: implications for mechanism of action. Contraception. Mar 2003;67(3):167-171.
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44. Trussell J, Ellertson C, Rodriguez G. The Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception: how long after the morning after? Obstet Gynecol. Jul 1996;88(1):150-154.
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45. Trussell J, Ellertson C, Stewart F, Raymond EG, Shochet T. The role of emergency contraception. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Apr 2004;190(4 Suppl):S30-38.
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46. Trussell J, Ellertson C, von Hertzen H, et al. Estimating the effectiveness of emergency contraceptive pills. Contraception. Apr 2003;67(4):259-265.
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47. Trussell J, Raymond EG. Statistical evidence about the mechanism of action of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception. Obstet Gynecol. May 1999;93(5 Pt 2):872-876.
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48. Trussell J, Rodriguez G, Ellertson C. Updated estimates of the effectiveness of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception. Contraception. Mar 1999;59(3):147-151.
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49. Van Look PF, von Hertzen H. Emergency contraception. Br Med Bull. Jan 1993;49(1):158-170.
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50. Van Look PF, von Hertzen H. Clinical uses of antiprogestogens. Hum Reprod Update. Jan 1995;1(1):19-34.
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51. von Hertzen H. Research on mifepristone and levonorgestrel in comparison with the Yuzpe regimen. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 1998;53(5 Suppl 2):222-224, 232.
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52. von Hertzen H, Piaggio G. Levonorgestrel and mifepristone in emergency contraception. Steroids. Nov 2003;68(10-13):1107-1113.
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53. von Hertzen H, Piaggio G, Ding J, et al. Low dose mifepristone and two regimens of levonorgestrel for emergency contraception: a WHO multicentre randomised trial. Lancet. Dec 7 2002;360(9348):1803-1810.
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54. Wanner MS, Couchenour RL. Hormonal emergency contraception. Pharmacotherapy. Jan 2002;22(1):43-53.
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55. Webb A, Taberner D. Clotting factors after emergency contraception. Adv Contracept. Mar 1993;9(1):75-82.
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56. Weisberg E, Fraser IS, Carrick SE, Wilde FM. Emergency contraception. General practitioner knowledge, attitudes and practices in New South Wales. Med J Aust. Feb 6 1995;162(3):136-138.
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57. Weismiller DG. Emergency contraception. Am Fam Physician. Aug 15 2004;70(4):707-714.
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58. Wertheimer RE. Emergency postcoital contraception. Am Fam Physician. Nov 15 2000;62(10):2287-2292.
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EC Mechanism of Action

1. Conard LA, Gold MA. Emergency contraception. Adolesc Med Clin. Oct 2005;16(3):585-602.
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2. Croxatto HB, Ortiz ME, Muller AL. Mechanisms of action of emergency contraception. Steroids. Nov 2003;68(10-13):1095-1098.
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3. Croxatto HB, Brache V, Pavez M, et al. Pituitary-ovarian function following the standard levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive dose or a single 0.75-mg dose given on the days preceding ovulation. Contraception. Dec 2004;70(6):442-450.
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4. Faundes A, Brache V, Alvarez F. Emergency contraception--clinical and ethical aspects. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. Sep 2003;82(3):297-305.
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5. Gemzell-Danielsson K, Marions L. Mechanisms of action of mifepristone and levonorgestrel when used for emergency contraception. Hum Reprod Update. Jul-Aug 2004;10(4):341-348.
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6. Glasier A. Emergency contraception. Br Med Bull. 2000;56(3):729-738.
Link to PubMed

7. Hapangama D, Glasier AF, Baird DT. The effects of peri-ovulatory administration of levonorgestrel on the menstrual cycle. Contraception. Mar 2001;63(3):123-129.
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8. Kahlenborn C, Stanford JB, Larimore WL. Postfertilization effect of hormonal emergency contraception. Ann Pharmacother. Mar 2002;36(3):465-470.
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9. Leminen R, Raivio T, Ranta S, et al. Late follicular phase administration of mifepristone suppresses circulating leptin and FSH - mechanism(s) of action in emergency contraception? Eur J Endocrinol. Mar 2005;152(3):411-418.
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10. Marions L, Cekan SZ, Bygdeman M, Gemzell-Danielsson K. Effect of emergency contraception with levonorgestrel or mifepristone on ovarian function. Contraception. May 2004;69(5):373-377.
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11. Marions L, Hultenby K, Lindell I, Sun X, Stabi B, Gemzell Danielsson K. Emergency contraception with mifepristone and levonorgestrel: mechanism of action. Obstet Gynecol. Jul 2002;100(1):65-71.
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12. Muller AL, Llados CM, Croxatto HB. Postcoital treatment with levonorgestrel does not disrupt postfertilization events in the rat. Contraception. May 2003;67(5):415-419.
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13. Trussell J, Ellertson C, Dorflinger L. Effectiveness of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception by cycle day of intercourse: implications for mechanism of action. Contraception. Mar 2003;67(3):167-171.
Link to PubMed

14. Trussell J, Raymond EG. Statistical evidence about the mechanism of action of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception. Obstet Gynecol. May 1999;93(5 Pt 2):872-876.
Link to PubMed

15. Weismiller DG. Emergency contraception. Am Fam Physician. Aug 15 2004;70(4):707-714.
Link to Full Text

16. Wellbery C. Emergency contraception. Arch Fam Med. Jul 2000;9(7):642-646.
Link to PDF

17. Yeung WS, Chiu PC, Wang CH, Yao YQ, Ho PC. The effects of levonorgestrel on various sperm functions. Contraception. Dec 2002;66(6):453-457.
Link to PubMed

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Copper IUD for Emergency Contraception

1. Copper IUD, inserted after coitus averts pregnancy and provides continuing contraceptive protection. Int Fam Plann Dig. Sep 1975;1(3):11-12.
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2. IUD most effective post-coital contraception. Contracept Technol Update. Jun 1995;16(6):78-80.
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3. Emergency contraception: how effective is it? Prog Hum Reprod Res. 1999(51):2.
Link to PubMed

4. Barnhart KT, Sondheimer SJ. Emergency contraception. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. Dec 1994;6(6):559-563.
Link to PubMed

5. Bilian X. Intrauterine devices. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. Apr 2002;16(2):155-168.
Link to PubMed

6. Blaney CL. Contraception after unprotected sex. Network. Dec 1994;15(2):4-8.
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7. Burton R. Emergency contraception. Practitioner. Nov 1991;235(1508):875-877.
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8. Cheng L, Gulmezoglu AM, Oel CJ, Piaggio G, Ezcurra E, Look PF. Interventions for emergency contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(3):CD001324.
Link to PubMed

9. Creinin MD. Intrauterine Devices: Separating Fact From Fallacy. Medscape Womens Health. Oct 1996;1(10):4.
Link to PubMed

10. Dunn S, Guilbert E, Lefebvre G, et al. Emergency contraception. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. Aug 2003;25(8):673-679, 680-677; quiz 688-690.
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11. Ellertson C. History and efficacy of emergency contraception: beyond Coca-Cola. Fam Plann Perspect. Mar-Apr 1996;28(2):44-48.
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12. Glasier A, Baird DT. Post-ovulatory contraception. Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynaecol. Jun 1990;4(2):283-291.
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13. Haspels AA, Van Santen MR. Post coital contraception. J Gynaecol Endocrinol. 1986;2(1-2):17-24.
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14. Klima CS. Emergency contraception for midwifery practice. J Nurse Midwifery. May-Jun 1998;43(3):182-189.
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15. Kubba A, Wilkinson C. Emergency contraception update. Br J Fam Plann. Jan 1998;23(4):135-137.
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16. Narrigan D. Postcoital contraception. Has its day come? J Nurse Midwifery. Nov-Dec 1994;39(6):363-369.
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17. Penney G, Brechin S, Allerton L. FFPRHC Guidance (July 2005): The use of contraception outside the terms of the product licence. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. Jul 2005;31(3):225-241; quiz 242.
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18. Reuter S. Barriers to the use of IUDs as emergency contraception. Br J Fam Plann. Jul 1999;25(2):61-68.
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19. Slupik RI. Case studies in contraception. Compr Ther. Jan 1998;24(1):26-29.
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20. Trussell J, Koenig J, Ellertson C, Stewart F. Preventing unintended pregnancy: the cost-effectiveness of three methods of emergency contraception. Am J Public Health. Jun 1997;87(6):932-937.
Link to PubMed

21. Van Look PF, von Hertzen H. Emergency contraception. Br Med Bull. Jan 1993;49(1):158-170.
Link to PubMed

22. Wellbery C. Emergency contraception. Arch Fam Med. Jul 2000;9(7):642-646.
Link to PubMed

23. Westley E. Emergency contraception: a global overview. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 1998;53(5 Suppl 2):215-218, 237.
Link to PubMed

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EC Use in Young Women and Teens

1. Aiken AM, Gold MA, Parker AM. Changes in young women's awareness, attitudes, and perceived barriers to using emergency contraception. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. Feb 2005;18(1):25-32.
Link to PubMed

2. Brening RK, Dalve-Endres AM, Patrick K. Emergency contraception pills (ECPs): current trends in United States college health centers. Contraception. Jun 2003;67(6):449-456.
Link to PubMed

3. Calabretto H. Emergency contraception: a qualitative study of young women's experiences. Contemp Nurse. Dec-2005 Jan 2004;18(1-2):152-163.
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4. Flowerdew C. Improving young people's access to emergency contraception. Nurs Times. Aug 19-25 2003;99(33):24-25.
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5. Free C, Lee RM, Ogden J. Young women's accounts of factors influencing their use and non-use of emergency contraception: in-depth interview study. Bmj. Dec 14 2002;325(7377):1393.
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6. Gold MA, Wolford JE, Smith KA, Parker AM. The effects of advance provision of emergency contraception on adolescent women's sexual and contraceptive behaviors. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. Apr 2004;17(2):87-96.
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