ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES BIBLIOGRAPHY

Oral Contraceptives — General Resources

Quick Start Regimens for Oral Contraceptives

Extended Regimens for Oral Contraceptives

Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risks

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ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES — GENERAL RESOURCES

1. Choices: "the pill" combined oral contraceptive. Contracept Technol Update. Sep 2000;21(9 Suppl):1-2.
Link to PubMed

2. The effects of seven monophasic oral contraceptive regimens on hemostatic variables: conclusions from a large randomized multicenter study. Contraception. Mar 2003;67(3):173-185.
Link to PubMed

3. Noncontraceptive health benefits of combined oral contraception. Hum Reprod Update. Sep-Oct 2005;11(5):513-525.
Link to PubMed

4. Anderson FD, Hait H, Hsiu J, Thompson-Graves AL, Wilborn WH, Williams RF. Endometrial microstructure after long-term use of a 91-day extended-cycle oral contraceptive regimen. Contraception. Jan 2005;71(1):55-59.
Link to PubMed

5. Apgar BS, Greenberg G. Using progestins in clinical practice. Am Fam Physician. Oct 15 2000;62(8):1839-1846, 1849-1850.
Link to Full Text

6. Benagiano G, Primiero FM. Safety of modern oral contraception: the options for women: lessons to be learned. Hum Reprod Update. Nov-Dec 1999;5(6):633-638.
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7. Bimla Schwarz E, Saint M, Gildengorin G, Weitz TA, Stewart FH, Sawaya GF. Cervical cancer screening continues to limit provision of contraception. Contraception. Sep 2005;72(3):179-181.
Link to PubMed

8. Bjarnadottir RI, Tuppurainen M, Killick SR. Comparison of cycle control with a combined contraceptive vaginal ring and oral levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Mar 2002;186(3):389-395.
Link to PubMed

9. Black C, Kaye JA, Jick H. Clinical risk factors for venous thromboembolus in users of the combined oral contraceptive pill. Br J Clin Pharmacol. Jun 2002;53(6):637-640.
Link to PubMed

10. Bracken MB. Oral contraception and congenital malformations in offspring: a review and meta-analysis of the prospective studies. Obstet Gynecol. Sep 1990;76(3 Pt 2):552-557.
Link to PubMed

11. Burkman R, Schlesselman JJ, Zieman M. Safety concerns and health benefits associated with oral contraception. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Apr 2004;190(4 Suppl):S5-22.
Link to PubMed

12. Cerel-Suhl SL, Yeager BF. Update on oral contraceptive pills. Am Fam Physician. Nov 1 1999;60(7):2073-2084.
Link to Full Text

13. Chacko MR, Kozinetz CA, Smith PB. Assessment of oral contraceptive pill continuation in young women. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. Aug 1999;12(3):143-148.
Link to PubMed

14. Chan WS, Ray J, Wai EK, et al. Risk of stroke in women exposed to low-dose oral contraceptives: a critical evaluation of the evidence. Arch Intern Med. Apr 12 2004;164(7):741-747.
Link to PubMed

15. Cromer BA, Smith RD, Blair JM, Dwyer J, Brown RT. A prospective study of adolescents who choose among levonorgestrel implant (Norplant), medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera), or the combined oral contraceptive pill as contraception. Pediatrics. Nov 1994;94(5):687-694.
Link to PubMed

16. Cromie MA, Maile MH, Wajszczuk CP. Comparative effects of Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) and ortho-Novum 7/7/7 oral contraceptive (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic) on lipid profiles. Investigators from the Lunelle Study Group. Contraception. Jan 2000;61(1):51-59.
Link to PubMed

17. Curtis KM, Chrisman CE, Peterson HB. Contraception for women in selected circumstances. Obstet Gynecol. Jun 2002;99(6):1100-1112.
Link to PubMed

18. Dayal M, Barnhart KT. Noncontraceptive benefits and therapeutic uses of the oral contraceptive pill. Semin Reprod Med. Dec 2001;19(4):295-303.
Link to PubMed

19. Dickinson BD, Altman RD, Nielsen NH, Sterling ML. Drug interactions between oral contraceptives and antibiotics. Obstet Gynecol. Nov 2001;98(5 Pt 1):853-860.
Link to PubMed

20. Dunn N, Thorogood M, Faragher B, et al. Oral contraceptives and myocardial infarction: results of the MICA case-control study. Bmj. Jun 12 1999;318(7198):1579-1583.
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21. Edelman A, Gallo M, Jensen J, Nichols M, Schulz K, Grimes DA. Continuous or extended cycle vs. cyclic use of combined oral contraceptives for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005(3):CD004695.
Link to PubMed

22. Elomaa K, Rolland R, Brosens I, et al. Omitting the first oral contraceptive pills of the cycle does not automatically lead to ovulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Jul 1998;179(1):41-46.
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23. Endrikat J, Cronin M, Gerlinger C, Ruebig A, Schmidt W, Dusterberg B. Open, multicenter comparison of efficacy, cycle control, and tolerability of a 23-day oral contraceptive regimen with 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 75 microg gestodene and a 21-day regimen with 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 150 microg desogestrel. Contraception. Sep 2001;64(3):201-207.
Link to PubMed

24. Eschenbach DA, Patton DL, Meier A, et al. Effects of oral contraceptive pill use on vaginal flora and vaginal epithelium. Contraception. Sep 2000;62(3):107-112.
Link to PubMed

25. Fraser IS. Forty years of combined oral contraception: the evolution of a revolution. Med J Aust. Nov 20 2000;173(10):541-544.
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26. Fraser IS, Jansen RP. Why do inadvertent pregnancies occur in oral contraceptive users? Effectiveness of oral contraceptive regimens and interfering factors. Contraception. Jun 1983;27(6):531-551.
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27. French DP, Gayton EL, Burton J, Thorogood M, Marteau TM. Measuring perceptions of synergistic circulatory disease risk due to smoking and the oral contraceptive pill. Risk Anal. Dec 2002;22(6):1139-1151.
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28. Gallo MF, Grimes DA, Schulz KF, Helmerhorst FM. Combination estrogen-progestin contraceptives and body weight: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Obstet Gynecol. Feb 2004;103(2):359-373.
Link to PubMed

29. Gallo MF, Nanda K, Grimes DA, Schulz KF. 20 mcg versus >20 mcg estrogen combined oral contraceptives for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005(2):CD003989.
Link to PubMed

30. Gillum LA, Mamidipudi SK, Johnston SC. Ischemic stroke risk with oral contraceptives: A meta-analysis. Jama. Jul 5 2000;284(1):72-78.
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31. Gomes MP, Deitcher SR. Risk of venous thromboembolic disease associated with hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy: a clinical review. Arch Intern Med. Oct 11 2004;164(18):1965-1976.
Link to PubMed

32. Greydanus DE, Patel DR, Rimsza ME. Contraception in the adolescent: an update. Pediatrics. Mar 2001;107(3):562-573.
Link to Pediatrics

33. Halderman LD, Nelson AL. Impact of early postpartum administration of progestin-only hormonal contraceptives compared with nonhormonal contraceptives on short-term breast-feeding patterns. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Jun 2002;186(6):1250-1256; discussion 1256-1258.
Link to PubMed

34. Helms SE, Bredle DL, Zajic J, Jarjoura D, Brodell RT, Krishnarao I. Oral contraceptive failure rates and oral antibiotics. J Am Acad Dermatol. May 1997;36(5 Pt 1):705-710.
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35. Hindmarch M, Oakeshott P. Interactions of the oral contraceptive pill with antibiotics and St John's wort: knowledge of female college students. Fam Pract. Dec 2002;19(6):708.
Link to Family Practice

36. Holt VL, Cushing-Haugen KL, Daling JR. Body weight and risk of oral contraceptive failure. Obstet Gynecol. May 2002;99(5 Pt 1):820-827.
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37. Holt VL, Scholes D, Wicklund KG, Cushing-Haugen KL, Daling JR. Body mass index, weight, and oral contraceptive failure risk. Obstet Gynecol. Jan 2005;105(1):46-52.
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38. Killick SR, Bancroft K, Oelbaum S, Morris J, Elstein M. Extending the duration of the pill-free interval during combined oral contraception. Adv Contracept. Mar 1990;6(1):33-40.
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39. Kjos SL, Peters RK, Xiang A, Thomas D, Schaefer U, Buchanan TA. Contraception and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Latina women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus. Jama. Aug 12 1998;280(6):533-538.
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40. Krishnamoorthy N, Ekins-Daukes S, Simpson CR, Milne RM, Helms PJ, McLay JS. Adolescent use of the combined oral contraceptive pill: a retrospective observational study. Arch Dis Child. Sep 2005;90(9):903-905.
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41. Kubba A, Guillebaud J, Anderson RA, MacGregor EA. Contraception. Lancet. Dec 2 2000;356(9245):1913-1919.
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42. LaGuardia KD, Shangold G, Fisher A, Friedman A, Kafrissen M. Efficacy, safety and cycle control of five oral contraceptive regimens containing norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol. Contraception. Jun 2003;67(6):431-437.
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43. Loder EW, Buse DC, Golub JR. Headache as a side effect of combination estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Sep 2005;193(3 Pt 1):636-649.
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44. Maitra N, Kulier R, Bloemenkamp KW, Helmerhorst FM, Gulmezoglu AM. Progestogens in combined oral contraceptives for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(3):CD004861.
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45. Mansour D, Fraser IS. Missed contraceptive pills and the critical pill-free interval. Lancet. May 14-20 2005;365(9472):1670-1671.
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46. Mant J, Painter R, Vessey M. Risk of myocardial infarction, angina and stroke in users of oral contraceptives: an updated analysis of a cohort study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. Aug 1998;105(8):890-896.
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47. Martinez-Frias ML, Rodriguez-Pinilla E, Bermejo E, Prieto L. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones: a case-control study. Teratology. Jan 1998;57(1):8-12.
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48. Mills A. Combined oral contraception and the risk of venous thromboembolism. Hum Reprod. Dec 1997;12(12):2595-2598.
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49. Mucci LA, Lagiou P, Hsieh CC, et al. A prospective study of pregravid oral contraceptive use in relation to fetal growth. Bjog. Sep 2004;111(9):989-995.
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50. Murphy MF, Campbell MJ, Bone M. Is there an increased risk of twinning after discontinuation of the oral contraceptive pill? J Epidemiol Community Health. Sep 1989;43(3):275-279.
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51. Oakley D, Sereika S, Bogue EL. Oral contraceptive pill use after an initial visit to a family planning clinic. Fam Plann Perspect. Jul-Aug 1991;23(4):150-154.
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52. Omar H, Kives S, Allen L. Extended Use of the Oral Contraceptive Pill-Is it an Acceptable Option for the Adolescent? J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. Aug 2005;18(4):285-288.
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53. Powell-Dunford NC, Deuster PA, Claybaugh JR, Chapin MG. Attitudes and knowledge about continuous oral contraceptive pill use in military women. Mil Med. Nov 2003;168(11):922-928.
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54. Proctor ML, Roberts H, Farquhar CM. Combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) as treatment for primary dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001(4):CD002120.
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55. Riddoch G. The combined oral contraceptive pill. A practical review of current options. Aust Fam Physician. Nov 2000;29(11):1039-1044.
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56. Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Rao RS, Shapiro S. Low-dose oral contraceptive use and the risk of myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med. Apr 23 2001;161(8):1065-1070.
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57. Rowlands S, Devalia H, Lawrenson R. Use of the combined oral contraceptive pill by under 16s. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. Jan 2001;27(1):17-19.
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58. Rowlands S, Devalia H, Lawrenson R. Preferential prescribing of type of combined oral contraceptive pill by general practitioners to teenagers with acne. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. Mar 2001;6(1):9-13.
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59. Schroeder K, Dwyer D, Barton SE. Audit of patients' knowledge of their oral contraceptive pill. Int J STD AIDS. Sep-Oct 1994;5(5):373-374.
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60. Schwartz JL, Creinin MD, Pymar HC. The trimonthly combination oral contraceptive regimen: is it cost effective? Contraception. Nov 1999;60(5):263-267.
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61. Scott A, Glasier AF. Are routine breast and pelvic examinations necessary for women starting combined oral contraception? Hum Reprod Update. Sep-Oct 2004;10(5):449-452.
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62. Seibert C, Barbouche E, Fagan J, Myint E, Wetterneck T, Wittemyer M. Prescribing oral contraceptives for women older than 35 years of age. Ann Intern Med. Jan 7 2003;138(1):54-64.
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63. Shulman LP. Oral contraception: safety issues re-examined. Int J Fertil Womens Med. Mar-Apr 1999;44(2):78-82.
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64. Siritho S, Thrift AG, McNeil JJ, You RX, Davis SM, Donnan GA. Risk of ischemic stroke among users of the oral contraceptive pill: The Melbourne Risk Factor Study (MERFS) Group. Stroke. Jul 2003;34(7):1575-1580.
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65. Tanis BC, van den Bosch MA, Kemmeren JM, et al. Oral contraceptives and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. Dec 20 2001;345(25):1787-1793.
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66. Truitt ST, Fraser AB, Grimes DA, Gallo MF, Schulz KF. Combined hormonal versus nonhormonal versus progestin-only contraception in lactation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003(2):CD003988.
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67. Van Vliet HA, Grimes DA, Helmerhorst FM, Schulz KF. Biphasic versus monophasic oral contraceptives for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003(2):CD002032.
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68. Vessey M, Painter R, Yeates D. Mortality in relation to oral contraceptive use and cigarette smoking. Lancet. Jul 19 2003;362(9379):185-191.
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69 . Wang CC, Reilly M, Kreiss JK. Risk of HIV infection in oral contraceptive pill users: a meta-analysis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. May 1 1999;21(1):51-58.
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70. Weaver K, Glasier A. Interaction between broad-spectrum antibiotics and the combined oral contraceptive pill. A literature review. Contraception. Feb 1999;59(2):71-78.
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71. Westhoff C, Kerns J, Morroni C, Cushman LF, Tiezzi L, Murphy PA. Quick start: novel oral contraceptive initiation method. Contraception. Sep 2002;66(3):141-145.
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72. Westhoff C, Morroni C, Kerns J, Murphy PA. Bleeding patterns after immediate vs. conventional oral contraceptive initiation: a randomized, controlled trial. Fertil Steril. Feb 2003;79(2):322-329.
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73. Williams H. Danger signals and the combined oral contraceptive pill. Aust Fam Physician. Dec 1999;28(12):1265-1267.
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74. Zacur HA, Stewart D. New concepts in oral contraceptive pill use. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. Jun 1992;4(3):365-371.
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QUICK START REGIMENS FOR ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES

1. Lara-Torre E. "Quick Start", an innovative approach to the combination oral contraceptive pill in adolescents. Is it time to make the switch? J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. Feb 2004;17(1):65-67.
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2. Lara-Torre E, Schroeder B. Adolescent compliance and side effects with Quick Start initiation of oral contraceptive pills. Contraception. Aug 2002;66(2):81-85.
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3. Westhoff C, Osborne LM, Schafer JE, Morroni C. Bleeding patterns after immediate initiation of an oral compared with a vaginal hormonal contraceptive. Obstet Gynecol. Jul 2005;106(1):89-96.
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EXTENDED REGIMENS FOR ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES

1. Anderson FD, Hait H. A multicenter, randomized study of an extended cycle oral contraceptive. Contraception. Aug 2003;68(2):89-96.
Link to PubMed

2. Andrist LC, Arias RD, Nucatola D, et al. Women's and providers' attitudes toward menstrual suppression with extended use of oral contraceptives. Contraception. Nov 2004;70(5):359-363.
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3. Andrist LC, Hoyt A, Weinstein D, McGibbon C. The need to bleed: women's attitudes and beliefs about menstrual suppression. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. Jan 2004;16(1):31-37.
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4. Edelman A. Menstrual nirvana: amenorrhea through the use of continuous oral contraceptives. Curr Womens Health Rep. Dec 2002;2(6):434-438.
Link to PubMed

5. Edelman AB, Gallo MF, Jensen JT, Nichols MD, Schulz KF, Grimes DA. Continuous or extended cycle vs. cyclic use of combined oral contraceptives for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005(3):CD004695.
Link to PubMed

6. Hamerlynck JV, Vollebregt JA, Doornebos CM, Muntendam P. Postponement of withdrawal bleeding in women using low-dose combined oral contraceptives. Contraception. Mar 1987;35(3):199-205
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7. Hitchcock CL, Prior JC. Evidence about extending the duration of oral contraceptive use to suppress menstruation. Womens Health Issues. Nov-Dec 2004;14(6):201-211.
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8. Johnston-Robledo I, Ball M, Lauta K, Zekoll A. To bleed or not to bleed: young women's attitudes toward menstrual suppression. Women Health. 2003;38(3):59-75.
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9. Miller L, Notter KM. Menstrual reduction with extended use of combination oral contraceptive pills: randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. Nov 2001;98(5 Pt 1):771-778.
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10. Nelson AL. Extended-cycle oral contraception: a new option for routine use. Treat Endocrinol. 2005;4(3):139-145.
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11. Schwartz JL, Creinin MD, Pymar HC. The trimonthly combination oral contraceptive regimen: is it cost effective? Contraception. Nov 1999;60(5):263-267.
Link to PubMed

12. Segal S, Coutinho E. Is Menstruation Obsolete? New York: Oxford University Press; 1999.
Link to JAMA

13. Sillem M, Schneidereit R, Heithecker R, Mueck AO. Use of an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone in an extended regimen. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. Sep 2003;8(3):162-169.
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14. Sucato GS, Gerschultz KL. Extended cycle hormonal contraception in adolescents. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. Oct 2005;17(5):461-465.
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15. Sulak PJ, Carl J, Gopalakrishnan I, Coffee A, Kuehl TJ. Outcomes of extended oral contraceptive regimens with a shortened hormone-free interval to manage breakthrough bleeding. Contraception. Oct 2004;70(4):281-287.
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16. Sulak PJ, Cressman BE, Waldrop E, Holleman S, Kuehl TJ. Extending the duration of active oral contraceptive pills to manage hormone withdrawal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. Feb 1997;89(2):179-183.
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17. Sulak PJ, Kuehl TJ, Ortiz M, Shull BL. Acceptance of altering the standard 21-day/7-day oral contraceptive regimen to delay menses and reduce hormone withdrawal symptoms. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Jun 2002;186(6):1142-1149.
Link to PubMed

18. Wiegratz I, Kuhl H. Long-cycle treatment with oral contraceptives. Drugs. 2004;64(21):2447-2462.
Link to PubMed

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ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES AND CANCER RISKS

1. Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53 297 women with breast cancer and 100 239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Lancet. Jun 22 1996;347(9017):1713-1727.
Link to PubMed

2. Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: further results. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Contraception. Sep 1996;54(3 Suppl):1S-106S.
Link to PubMed

3. Contraceptive methods and breast cancer risk: an update. Contracept Rep. Jul 2000;11(2):9-11.
Link to PubMed

4. Long-term oral contraceptive use and the risk of breast cancer. The centers for Disease Control Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study. Jama. Mar 25 1983;249(12):1591-1595.
Link to PubMed

5. Althuis MD, Brogan DR, Coates RJ, et al. Hormonal content and potency of oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk among young women. Br J Cancer. Jan 13 2003;88(1):50-57.
Link to PubMed

6. Bailie R, Katzenellenbogen J, Hoffman M, et al. A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable progestogen contraceptives. Methods and patterns of use among controls. S Afr Med J. Mar 1997;87(3):302-305.
Link to PubMed

7. Baird DT, Glasier AF. Hormonal contraception. N Engl J Med. May 27 1993;328(21):1543-1549.
Link to PubMed

8. Beral V, Hermon C, Kay C, Hannaford P, Darby S, Reeves G. Mortality associated with oral contraceptive use: 25 year follow up of cohort of 46 000 women from Royal College of General Practitioners' oral contraception study. Bmj. Jan 9 1999;318(7176):96-100.
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9. Bertram CC. Evidence for practice: oral contraception and risk of cervical cancer. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. Oct 2004;16(10):455-461.
Link to PubMed

10. Borgelt-Hansen L. Oral contraceptives: an update on health benefits and risks. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). Nov-Dec 2001;41(6):875-886; quiz 925-876.
Link to PubMed

11. Burkman RT, Collins JA, Shulman LP, Williams JK. Current perspectives on oral contraceptive use. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Aug 2001;185(2 Suppl):S4-12.
Link to PubMed

12. Caygill CP, Hill MJ. Trends in European breast cancer incidence and possible etiology. Tumori. Apr 30 1991;77(2):126-129.
Link to PubMed

13. Chiaffarino F, Pelucchi C, Parazzini F, et al. Reproductive and hormonal factors and ovarian cancer. Ann Oncol. Mar 2001;12(3):337-341.
Link to PubMed

14. Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE. Risk factors for breast cancer according to family history of breast cancer.For the Nurses' Health Study Research Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. Mar 20 1996;88(6):365-371.
Link to PubMed

15. Deligeoroglou E, Michailidis E, Creatsas G. Oral contraceptives and reproductive system cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Nov 2003;997:199-208.
Link to PubMed

16. Fowke JH, Shu XO, Dai Q, et al. Oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk: modification by NAD(P)H:quinone oxoreductase (NQO1) genetic polymorphisms. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Aug 2004;13(8):1308-1315.
Link to PDF

17. Friedenson B. A current perspective on genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer: the oral contraceptive decision. MedGenMed. Nov 2 2001;3(6):2.
Link to PubMed

18. Gadducci A, Biglia N, Sismondi P, Genazzani AR. Breast cancer and sex steroids: critical review of epidemiological, experimental and clinical investigations on etiopathogenesis, chemoprevention and endocrine treatment of breast cancer. Gynecol Endocrinol. Jun 2005;20(6):343-360.
Link to PubMed

19. Gast K, Snyder T. Combination oral contraceptives and cancer risk. Kans Med. Jul 1990;91(7):201-208.
Link to PubMed

20. Gay JW, Cardwell MS. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer. Mo Med. Oct 1990;87(10):763-767.
Link to PubMed

21. Grabrick DM, Hartmann LC, Cerhan JR, et al. Risk of breast cancer with oral contraceptive use in women with a family history of breast cancer. Jama. Oct 11 2000;284(14):1791-1798.
Link to PubMed

22. Hannaford PC, Kay CR. The risk of serious illness among oral contraceptive users: evidence from the RCGP's oral contraceptive study. Br J Gen Pract. Oct 1998;48(435):1657-1662.
Link to PubMed

23. Herbst AL, Berek JS. Impact of contraception on gynecologic cancers. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Jun 1993;168(6 Pt 2):1980-1985.
Link to PubMed

24. Isaksson E, von Schoultz E, Odlind V, et al. Effects of oral contraceptives on breast epithelial proliferation. Breast Cancer Res Treat. Jan 2001;65(2):163-169.
Link to PubMed

25. Johnson KH, Millard PS. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer. J Fam Pract. Oct 1996;43(4):340-341.
Link to PubMed

26. Kumle M, Weiderpass E, Braaten T, Persson I, Adami HO, Lund E. Use of oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk: The Norwegian-Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Nov 2002;11(11):1375-1381.
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27. Lee NC, Rosero-Bixby L, Oberle MW, Grimaldo C, Whatley AS, Rovira EZ. A case-control study of breast cancer and hormonal contraception in Costa Rica. J Natl Cancer Inst. Dec 1987;79(6):1247-1254.
Link to PubMed

28. Lipnick RJ, Buring JE, Hennekens CH, et al. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer. A prospective cohort study. Jama. Jan 3 1986;255(1):58-61.
Link to PubMed

29. Murray PP, Stadel BV, Schlesselman JJ. Oral contraceptive use in women with a family history of breast cancer. Obstet Gynecol. Jun 1989;73(6):977-983.
Link to PubMed

30. Narod SA, Risch H, Moslehi R, et al. Oral contraceptives and the risk of hereditary ovarian cancer. Hereditary Ovarian Cancer Clinical Study Group. N Engl J Med. Aug 13 1998;339(7):424-428.
Link to PubMed

31. Ness RB, Grisso JA, Cottreau C, et al. Factors related to inflammation of the ovarian epithelium and risk of ovarian cancer. Epidemiology. Mar 2000;11(2):111-117.
Link to PubMed

32. Ness RB, Grisso JA, Klapper J, et al. Risk of ovarian cancer in relation to estrogen and progestin dose and use characteristics of oral contraceptives. SHARE Study Group. Steroid Hormones and Reproductions. Am J Epidemiol. Aug 1 2000;152(3):233-241.
Link to PubMed

33. Ness RB, Grisso JA, Vergona R, Klapper J, Morgan M, Wheeler JE. Oral contraceptives, other methods of contraception, and risk reduction for ovarian cancer. Epidemiology. May 2001;12(3):307-312.
Link to PubMed

34. Paul C, Skegg DC, Spears GF. Oral contraceptives and risk of breast cancer. Int J Cancer. Sep 15 1990;46(3):366-373.
Link to PubMed

35. Pike MC, Pearce CL, Peters R, Cozen W, Wan P, Wu AH. Hormonal factors and the risk of invasive ovarian cancer: a population-based case-control study. Fertil Steril. Jul 2004;82(1):186-195.
Link to PubMed

36. Pike MC, Spicer DV. Hormonal contraception and chemoprevention of female cancers. Endocr Relat Cancer. Jun 2000;7(2):73-83.
Link to PDF

37. Sanderson M, Williams MA, Weiss NS, Hendrix NW, Chauhan SP. Oral contraceptives and epithelial ovarian cancer. Does dose matter? J Reprod Med. Sep 2000;45(9):720-726.
Link to PubMed

38. Schlesselman JJ. Cancer of the breast and reproductive tract in relation to use of oral contraceptives. Contraception. Jul 1989;40(1):1-38.
Link to PubMed

39. Schlesselman JJ. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Oct 1990;163(4 Pt 2):1379-1387.
Link to PubMed

40. Schlesselman JJ. Net effect of oral contraceptive use on the risk of cancer in women in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. May 1995;85(5 Pt 1):793-801.
Link to PubMed

41. Schlesselman JJ, Stadel BV, Korper M, Yu W, Wingo PA. Breast cancer detection in relation to oral contraception. J Clin Epidemiol. May 1992;45(5):449-459.
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